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Agriculture in China II

DATE:2017-03-01       SOURCE:MOA
 

 

2.7 Agricultural Technology Development and Extension

 

Technology has become a main driver in China’s agricultural development. In 2014, technological contributed to 56% of the total agricultural growth.

 

The allocation of public funding to agricultural research institutions has seen tremendous growth, promoting rapid increase in total investment. The annual growth rate of research funding is 11%. The mechanism for agricultural research and development is improving. The construction of modern agricultural industry technology system was initiated in 2007. Systematic research and service system has been established, connecting farms to dining table, production to consumption, and research to market. More than 50 major agricultural products including rice, corn, wheat and pigs are covered by the system.

 

Efforts to build key agricultural laboratories are stepping up. Pursuant to disciplinary subjects, industry demand and regional characteristics, 33 comprehensive key laboratories, 195 specialized/regional key laboratories and 269 scientific observation and experiment stations are set up all over the country.

 

Innovation in the seed industry technology is accelerating and the breeding of new varieties has reaped remarkable achievements. Taking full advantage of heterosis and molecular marker breeding, transgenic breeding, cell engineering and other means, a large number of premium varieties such as super rice, high-yield wheat, hybrid maize, BT cotton, and hybrid rapeseed have been bred. Testing for molecular characteristics of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and environmental safety evaluation and monitoring system are enhanced to improve the guarantee for the safety of GMOs.

 

Soil testing and formula fertilization projects are further promoted. Implementation of soil testing and formula fertilization subsidy projects were launched in 2005, focusing on five stages of “testing, formulation, production, supply and application”. Based on soil sample testing and fertilizer efficiency experiments, appropriate fertilization programs are formulated to promote the application of formula fertilizer and to popularize science-based fertilization technology. Healthy livestock production technology is highlighted. A new type of recombinant avian influenza (Subtype H5) inactivated vaccine was successfully developed in 2004. The successful production of recombinant avian influenza - Newcastle Disease bivalent live vaccine was achieved in 2006, making it the 1st live RNA virus vector vaccine in application in the world. The veterinary chemical drug “quinocetone” was awarded the 1st certificate of national category-I new veterinary drugs.

 

Agricultural technology extension has achieved remarkable results. In 2014, the Ministry of Finance allocated 2.6 billion yuan of subsidies for the reform and construction of community-level agricultural technology extension system. Pilot programs on dedicated positions of agri-technology extension are being set up, and 10,852 technical staff members have been recruited to support the training program for 10,000 agri-tech dissemination personnel.  

 

2.8 Agricultural Ecology and Culture

 

Beautiful countryside and agricultural tourism have achieved rapid growth. By the end of 2014, agriculture tourism had received 1 billion customers, and generated 300 billion yuan of revenue, marking an annual growth rate of 10%.

Projects on important agricultural heritage are being reinforced. Since 2012, the Chinese government has conducted recognition of agricultural heritage sites once every two years. By now, a total of 62 agricultural heritage sites have been identified. Among the 31 GIAHS sites identified by the FAO, 11 are in China, another champion title for the nation.

 


3. Agricultural Production and Trade

 

3.1 Major Agricultural Products

 

There are abundant agricultural products in China, including food crops such as rice, wheat, maize, sorghum and millet; cash crops such as vegetables, fruits, cotton and tea; oil-bearing crops such as soybean, rapeseed, peanut, sesame and sunflower; sugar crops such as sugar cane and beet; tropical crops such as natural rubber, cassava, sisal, and coffee; animal products such as pigs, poultry, cattle, sheep and goats, and dairy products, as well as a large variety of aquatic products.

 

Table 3-1Output of Major Agricultural Products10,000 tons

Product

1990

2000

2005

2010

2014

2015

Food Grain Crops

44624.0

46218.0

48402.2

54647.7

60702.6

62144.0

Oil Crops

1613.2

2955.0

3077.1

3230.1

3507.4

3547.0

Cotton

450.8

442.0

571.4

596.1

617.8

561.0

Sugar Crops

7214.5

7635.0

9451.9

12008.5

13361.2

12529

Fruits

1874.4

6225.0

16120.1

21401.4

26142.2

Meat

2857.0

6013.9

6938.9

7925.8

8706.7

8625.0

Poultry and Eggs

794.6

2182.0

2438.1

2762.7

2893.9

2999.0

Dairy Products

475.1

919.1

2864.8

3748.0

3841.2

3755

Aquatic Products

1237.0

4279.0

5106.1

5373.0

6461.5

6690.0

SourceChina Statistics Yearbook; China Statistical Communiqué of the National Economic and Social Development (2015).

Regionalization and specialization of agricultural production has taken shape. A number of unique and competitive production belts of grain, cotton, natural rubber, beef, mutton, dairy and fishery production has been gradually developed.

 

3.2 Agricultural Trade

 

China has become the 7th largest exporter and the 2nd largest importer of agricultural products, thus holding an increasingly important status in the world agricultural trade. Import and export of agricultural products is witnessing fast growth. China’s total agricultural trade had increased by 3.1 times between 2002 and 2015, from 30.05 billion dollars to 123.318 billion dollars. Labor intensive products are taking the lead in export, such as vegetables, fruits and processed agricultural products, and import products mainly involve land intensive products, like oil crops and cotton.

Figure 3-1 Import and Export of China’s Agricultural Products (1998-2015)

Source: China-Customs.com

 

The leading export products include: fresh/frozen vegetables, processed vegetables; fish products, shrimp, shellfish and mollusks, crabs, pearl; canned fruit, fruit juices, other processed fruits, fresh/ frozen fruit; tea; food made of flour; seeds; cocoon and silk; poultry products, eggs, rabbits, and other animal products; mung bean, red bean; garlic, mushroom, etc.

 

Leading import products include: natural rubber, soybean, cotton, palm oil, wool, wine, hides, soybean oil, rapeseed, sugar, milk powder, dry cassava, feed meal, pork, etc.

 


Table 3-2 Import and Export Value of Agricultural Products100 million USD

Products

2000

2005

2010

2015

Export

Import

Export

Import

Export

Import

Export

Import

All Agricultural Products

157.00

112.66

275.97

287.79

494.24

725.70

707.46

1170.08

Food Products

3.69

0.60

7.96

2.16

14.69

6.56

18.78

17.91

Vegetables

21.12

1.14

45.36

1.28

99.86

2.79

132.69

5.41

Fruits

7.23

3.69

20.38

6.64

43.57

20.30

69.38

58.70

Nuts

2.32

0.30

3.89

0.76

8.37

2.73

12.73

7.19

Flowers

0.61

0.36

0.85

0.64

1.91

1.21

2.60

2.16

Medicinal Herbs

1.04

1.15

1.80

0.76

4.84

5.18

10.22

1.29

Animal Products

25.90

26.53

36.03

42.31

47.47

96.60

58.86

204.45

Aquatic Products

38.24

18.48

79.16

41.31

138.40

65.42

203.36

89.99

Rapeseed Meal

0.96

7.55

2.13

30.91

1.72

82.29

8.10

1.44

Sauce

0.36

0.07

0.56

0.05

1.21

0.06

1.60

0.10

Beverages

8.96

2.44

13.75

6.23

21.67

22.44

43.71

57.29

Cereals

2.06

0.36

2.79

0.22

10.63

10.66

4.45

94.05

Other agricultural products

10.75

9.40

23.12

14.31

58.97

47.05

87.97

90.00

Dry Beans

2.55

0.27

4.90

1.11

9.34

4.65

6.36

4.70

Oilseeds

5.63

29.44

9.91

79.99

12.46

265.44

15.89

385.21

Vegetable Oil

6.52

2.68

2.94

35.51

3.88

63.31

2.81

70.64

Essential Oil

0.31

0.21

0.75

0.69

1.98

1.03

7.97

2.29

Cotton, linen, Silk

16.94

5.95

15.33

14.10

6.93

15.28

4.21

34.21

Sugar Crops and Sugar

1.73

1.82

4.23

4.57

6.19

0.63

15.64

21.66

Root & Tube Crops

0.07

0.23

0.13

4.23

0.17

12.06

0.12

21.42

Source: China-Customs.com.

 

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