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1.Agricultural Resources

DATE:2009-06-11       SOURCE:
1.Agricultural resources


1.1Climatic resources. The complex and diversified weather conditions in China are attributed to its vast territory, unique geographical position, topography and geomorphology. The thermal resources increase gradually from the north to the south of the country. In northeast and northwest China, the annual accumulated temperature ranges from 2 500 to 3 500, where it sees one crop a year in general. In North China Plain and the north parts of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it ranges from 4 000 to 5 000, where farmers usually harvest two crops a year or three crops every two years. In the southern parts of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it ranges from 5 000 to 7 000, where farmers grow three crops a year on average. It is up to 7 000 to 8 000 in the southern parts to the Nanling Mountainswhere crops may grow up all year round. The annual total water resources amount to 2 812.4 billion m3 on average, of which 19 percent goes to the north and 81 percent the south. The water resources per capita account for only one-fourth of the world average. The precipitation varies from year to year, season to season, and region to region. In most parts of the country, winter and spring see less precipitation, and summer and autumn more precipitation. The country suffers from both droughts and floods.

1.2 Biological resources. China has abundant resources of species. There are thousands of farm crops and their wild kindred plants, including about 1 200 cultivated plants covering grain crops, cash crops, fruit trees, vegetables, pasture plants and flowers. The major genetic resources of livestock and poultry are pigs, chickens, gees, yellow cattle and water buffalo, involving some 20 species and 576 breeds in total. More than 20 000 aquatic life are put on records through survey, including over 3 800 of fish, over 300 of amphibious reptiles, over 40 of aquatic mammals and over 600 aquatic plants.

1.3 Farmland Resources. In 2006, farmland in China totaled some 130.04 million ha, about 3.92 million ha less than 1978, with annual reduction of 0.14 million ha on average. Of the total, irrigated farmland made up some one-fourth and dry farmland about three-fourths. Farmland per capita was less than 0.1 hectare in the 10 provinces and municipalities of Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan and Hubei. It ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 ha in the 15 provinces, autonomous regions and municipality of Jilin, Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Sichuan, Tibet, Shaanxi and Shanxi. It exceeded 0.2 ha in the six provinces and autonomous regions of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. In 2006, the wooded land in China was about 284.93 million ha including some 174.91 million ha of forest, which was 59.91 million ha more than 1980. The forest coverage ratio was about 18.2 percent or about 6.2 percentage points higher than 1980. There were more than 400 million ha of grassland, reduced by 19.40 million ha compared to 1978.


Variation in Farmland Per Capita in China

Unit: hectare


Variation in Farmland Acreage in China

Unit: 10 thousand hectares

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