Excerpt of China’s 12th Five-Year Plan--- Agriculture Part
Part II To Strengthen Agriculture and Benefit Farmers, and Speed up the Development of the Socialist New Countryside
We will promote agricultural modernization while deepening industrialization and urbanization, improve the long-term mechanism of industry supporting agriculture and the urban areas supporting the rural areas, strengthen our support for agriculture, provide more benefits to farmers, promote agricultural modernization and improve farmers’ living standards, all in a bid to build a better homeland for farmers.
Chapter 5 To Accelerate the Development of Modern Agriculture
We will stick to the path of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics, make safeguarding national food security our primary goal, speed up transformation of agricultural development patterns, and enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity, risk resistance capacity and market competitiveness.
Section 1 To Strengthen Food Security Safeguarding Capacity
We will keep the area planted in grain crops stable, optimize variety structure, improve per unit production and quality, carry out extensive activities to achieve high-yield production, and establish a comprehensive grain production capacity of over 540 million tons. We will implement the plan to increase the country's grain production capacity by 50 million tons, increase investment in and benefit compensation to major grain producing areas, and build core grain-producing areas and major grain-producing counties in non-core areas into stable high-yield commercial grain production bases.
We will strictly protect arable land and speed up consolidation and reclamation of rural land. We will step up field engineering construction based on water conservancy facilities, transform mid- to low-yielding fields, and develop arable land that meets high drought and flood resistance standards on a large scale. We will enhance capacity-building in food logistics, reserve and emergency support.
Section 2 To Promote Agricultural Structural Strategic Adjustment
We will improve the system of modern agriculture, develop high-yield, high quality, efficient, ecological and safe agriculture. We will optimize the layout of agricultural industry, accelerate the establishment of a strategic pattern of agriculture which is comprised of "seven zones and twenty-three areas", with the Northeast Plain, Huanghuaihai Plain, Yangtze River Basin, Fenwei Plain, Hetao Irrigation Area, South China, Gansu and Xinjiang as the main agricultural production zones, and the other agricultural areas as important components. We will encourage and support advantageous areas to focus on the development of grain, cotton, oilseeds, sugar crops and other staple agricultural products. We will accelerate the development of facility agriculture, and promote standardized production of vegetables, fruits, tea, flowers and other horticultural crops. We will raise the level of livestock development, and increase the proportion of animal husbandry output. We will promote healthy aquatic farming and deep-sea fishing. We will actively develop the forestry industry. We will promote the industrial management of agriculture; support the processing and circulation of agricultural products; and promote specialized, standardized, scaled and intensive agricultural production and management. We will promote the development of modern agriculture demonstration zones.
Section 3 To Speed up Agricultural Technological Innovation
We will boost the process of agricultural technology integration, mechanization of labor, and information management of production. We will speed up the innovation and application of biotechnology breeding in agriculture; develop new biological variety with important application value and independent intellectual property rights; and foster a large and strong modern seed industry. We will strengthen the technology innovation integration and field application in efficient plantation, disease prevention and control and agricultural water conservation; and implement specialized and unified anti-pests systems for major crops such as rice, wheat and corn. We will accelerate mechanization of agriculture; promote agricultural-agronomic integration, and strive for a tilling-planting-harvesting integrated farming mechanization level of about 60%. We will develop agricultural information technology to improve the level of information management in agricultural production.
Section 4 To Improve Social Service Systems for Agriculture
We will enhance public service capacity-building for agricultural development; accelerate the improvement in public service agencies for rural or regional agricultural technology dissemination, animal & plant disease prevention and control, and agricultural products quality supervision. We will foster a wide range of agricultural social service organizations, and encourage specialized cooperative organizations of farmers, supply and marketing cooperatives, farmers’ agents, and leading enterprises to provide various forms of production and management services. We will actively support the development of distribution services for agricultural products, and accelerate the establishment of agricultural products marketing networks with low-distribution costs and high operating efficiency.
Article 6 To Expand Income Channels for Farmers
We will strengthen our guidance and support for farmers to enhance their vocational skills and income-earning capacities. We will expand income channels for farmers by all means, in a bid to keep sustained and rapid income growth for farmers.
Section 1To Steadily Increase Incomes from Household Business Operations
We will establish a sound price protection system for agricultural products; steadily improve the minimum purchase prices for key grain varieties; and improve temporary purchasing and storage policy for bulk agricultural products. We will encourage farmers to optimize the planting structure, raise production management level and improve economic performance. We will ensure a reasonable share of revenue for farmers in the agricultural product processing and distribution through the development of agricultural industrialization and new rural cooperative organizations. We will develop feature and high-efficiency agriculture based on specific local conditions; and tap on agricultural landscape resources to develop sightseeing, leisure, tourism and other rural service sectors, so as to ensure farmers get more income in the expansion of agricultural functions.
Section 2 To Strive to Increase Wage Incomes
We will strengthen skills training and employment information services for farmers; establish labor export platforms; and guide the rural surplus labor to seek employment in other areas in a smooth and orderly manner. We will advocate equal employment opportunities for both urban workers and rural farmers; promote equal pay for equal employment between migrant workers and urban residents; and increase wage levels of migrant workers. We will add non-agricultural jobs in county regions; encourage farmers to find nonagricultural employment in their hometowns or nearby areas; and support farmers to start their own businesses to create new jobs. We will build on the development of new countryside, expand the scale of the “work for pay” scheme, and increase labor income of farmers.
Section 3 To Effectively Increase Transfer Income
We will improve the agricultural subsidy system, continue to provide direct subsidies to grain-growing farmers, further implement subsidies for the purchase of high-quality seeds and farming machinery, and improve the dynamic adjustment mechanism of comprehensive agricultural subsidies. We will increase the basic pension of the new rural social pension insurance scheme; raise the standards of medical assistance and reimbursement in new rural cooperative medicinal institutions; and raise the level of rural minimum living standards. We will actively develop policy-supported agricultural insurance, increase the agricultural categories eligible for insurance subsidies, and expand the coverage of agricultural insurance. We will increase investment in poverty reduction, and gradually increase the poverty line.
Chapter 7 To Improve Rural Production and Living Conditions
We will follow the requirement of integrated economic and social development in both urban and rural areas, improve the development planning of socialist new countryside; strengthen rural infrastructure and public services; and facilitate comprehensive improvement in rural environment.
Section 1 To Raise the Management Level in Village and Township Planning
We will adapt to the new situation of the rural population migration and take into consideration the local conditions, respect the will of villagers, highlight the regional and rural characteristics, protect the original regional cultural features, and formulate township and village planning in a scientific manner. We will guide rational development of rural residence and communities, provide farmers with free residential design drawings that are economical, safe, affordable and can save the use of land, energy and materials. We will make rational spatial layout arrangements for the development of counties, towns and villages, farmland protection, industry clusters, village distribution, and ecological conservation; and integrate the development of rural production and living infrastructure, service facilities and the public welfare programs.
Section 2 To Strengthen Rural Infrastructure Construction
We will strengthen overall water conservancy construction; improve the construction, maintenance and management mechanism; speed up the upgrade of medium-sized irrigation zones and irrigation and drainage pumping stations; establish new irrigation zones in regions with abundant water and soil resources at an appropriate time; improve construction of water sources to wade off droughts; promote small-scale irrigation and water conservancy construction in farmlands of key counties; and improve the small- and micro-irrigation facilities in rural areas. We will strengthen the development of safe rural drinking water facilities, and vigorously promote centralized water supply in rural areas.
We will continue to promote rural road construction; further improve the traffic conditions and management and maintenance of the roads; and step up the efforts to upgrade roads and dangerous bridges. We will strengthen the rural energy development; continue to build county-level electrical and gas facilities in new countryside; strengthen the “small hydropower for fossil fuel power” project; launch a new round of rural power grid upgrading and renovation; develop methane, crop residues, forestry waste utilization and other types of bio-mass resources; tap on wind and solar power; and strengthen the renovation of stoves and heat-able brick beds to make them more economical in firewood and coal. We will roll out comprehensive renovation and upgrading projects for dilapidated rural buildings, state-owned forest (field), shanty towns and dilapidated houses in the reclamation area; and implementing housing projects for the nomadic and shepherds population. We will strengthen the rural postal facilities and push forward the development of the rural information infrastructure.
Section 3 To Strengthen Rural Public Services
We will expand the scope of public finance coverage for rural areas, and step up financial support for rural public services. We will improve the quality and balanced development of rural compulsory education; promote the process of providing free secondary vocational education in rural areas; and actively develop pre-school education in the countryside. We will establish and improve the rural health service network to make safe, affordable and accessible basic medical services available to farmers. We will improve the rural social security networks and gradually raise the security standards. We will strengthen the development of rural public cultural and sports facilities to enrich the cultural life of farmers.
Section 4 To Promote Comprehensive Clean-up of Rural Environment
We will manage and clean up pesticides, fertilizers and plastic sheeting and other non-point source pollution; and comprehensively promote the prevention and control of pollution by livestock and poultry breeding. We will strengthen the protection of drinking water sources in rural areas; and step up our efforts in comprehensive treatment of rural river channels and water pollution. We will strengthen the surveillance, prevention, treatment and management of soil pollution. We will implement rural sanitation projects; expedite the implementation of concentrated waste treatment in rural areas; and carry out comprehensive and integrated clean-up processes in rural areas. We will strictly forbid urban and industrial pollution spreading to the countryside.
Chapter 8 To Improve Rural Development Institutional Mechanisms
We will based on the requirement of consolidated urban and rural development, accelerate the reform of institutional mechanisms for rural development, and enhance the vitality of agriculture and rural development.
Section 1 To Uphold and Improve Basic Rural Operating System
We will uphold the two-tier operation system based on the household contract system and integrating unified with separate management. We will improve the rural land laws, regulations and policies, and maintain the stability of the current rural land contract relations for a long term. We will properly handle of work of the rural land ownership identification, registration and certification; improve the land contract and management arrangement; and protection farmers’ legal rights in terms of the possession, use, benefits and other rights of the contracted the land. We will improve the market for transferring of management rights of contracted land based on voluntary consent, compensation and better services; and develop various operation forms of appropriate scales. We will deepen the comprehensive rural reform; promote the forest rights and forest tenure reform of the state-owned and collectively-owned forests; improve the grassland contracting system; and accelerate the agricultural reclamation reform.
Section 2 To Establish and Improve the Integrated Urban and Rural Development System
We will speed up the elimination of institutional obstacles that has restrained coordinated development of urban and rural areas; promote balanced allocation of public resources and free flow of factors of production between rural and urban areas. We will integrate urban and rural development planning to promote integration of urban and rural infrastructure, public services and social management. We will improve the equal exchange of factors between urban and rural areas; and ensure the proceeds from land appropriation and rural deposits are mainly used for agriculture and rural areas. We will strictly regulate rural land acquisition for urban development; adjust and optimize the structure and layout of urban and rural land properties; and gradually establish a unified land development market for rural areas and cities. We will strictly define and differentiate land development for public-use and commercial-use; reform land acquisition system; reduce the scale of land acquisition; and increase land compensation standards. We will improve the transfer mechanism for rural collectively-owned construction land and the management system for rural housing land.
We will accelerate the establishment of a unified labor market in urban and rural areas; and establish an equal employment system for rural and urban workers. We will direct more national fiscal expending and budgetary fixed asset investment to agriculture and rural areas. We will deepen the reform of rural credit cooperatives; encourage qualified regions to establish county-level community banks; promote the development of rural financial institutions and micro-credit; and expand the range of accepted collateral in rural areas. We will conscientiously sum up the cross-sector reform experience in integrated urban and rural development, and actively explore solutions to support the development of agriculture, rural areas and farmers.
Section 3 To Strengthen Growth Vitality for the County Economy
We will expand the development autonomy for counties, and steadily roll out the piloting reform of supporting county development through expanded autonomy. We will establish and improve the basic financial system to ensure adequate financial resources for county authorities; increase general transfer payments to counties; and gradually increase provincial distribution of financial resources to counties. We will follow relevant law to grant small towns with rapid growth and strong ability to absorb population the administrative authority such as investment approvals, business supervision and public security. We will give play to the resources advantages and comparative advantages of counties; design scientific planning for industrial development; support labor-intensive industries and agro-processing industries to cluster around counties and central villages; and promote an industrial development pattern with rational urban-rural division of labor.
Priority Projects in New Countryside Development
Modern Seed Project
|We will build national seed cultivation bases, regional high-quality breeding bases, regional bases of livestock, poultry and aquatic products, high-quality seed farms, key national natural conservation zones for wildlife and aquatic species, and key national conservation zones for aquatic products.|
Farmland Development Project with High Drought and Flood Resistance Standards
|We will upgrade mid-and low-yield farmland; further improve the current high-yield land; carry out land leveling, soil improvement and standardization management of large scale farmland; and strengthen the development of field irrigation and drainage facilities, tractor roads, bridge culvert, manure collection facility, and farmland forestry networks.|
“Vegetable Basket” Project
|We will renovate a group of standardized horticultural products bases, industrialized livestock and poultry farms and demonstrative healthy aquatic products farms; and establish a group of key national large wholesale markets and regional wholesale markets.|
Fishery Supervision and Fishing Harbor Project
|We will expand or build a group of costal harbor centers, first-class fishing ports, second-class fishing ports, sheltered anchorages and key inland fishing ports; establish and improve fishery supervision systems at national, sea-area and provincial levels; and purchase law-enforcement equipment and supplies for fishery supervision.|
Animal & Plants Protection Project
|We will establish a 6-grade animal epidemic prevention and control system, with emphasis on grassroots animal epidemic prevention and control system; establish agricultural pests epidemic prevention and control system, and improve the agricultural pests epidemic prevention and control facilities.|
Rural Drinking Water Safety Project
|We will resolve the issue of safe drinking water for near 300 million rural residents through centralized water supply, de-centralized water supply and via extended urban water supply pipes to the countryside.|
Rural Roads Project
|We will build and renovate 1 million kilometers of rural roads, and ensure all administrative villages in the eastern and middle region as well as 80% of administrative villages in the western region, provided they have necessary conditions, to have access to asphalt (concrete) roads.|
Rural Electricity Supply Project
|We will overhaul the rural power grid that needs upgrading and improve regional power grid where the current capacity cannot meet the rapid growth of power demand. We will establish 1000 solar power demonstrative villages, 200 green energy counties, and 300 model counties with sufficient electricity and gas supplies, and add 1000 GW installed capacity of micro hydro-power.|
Rural Methane Project
|We will build household-use methane project, small-sized methane project, large- to medium-sized methane project and methane service system, so over 50% of rural households with appropriate conditions will have access to methane.|
Rural Housing Project
|We will renovate dilapidated houses for 8 million poor rural households. We will basically solve the problem of housing shortages for workers in state-owned reclamation areas, forest regions and forest farms, and provide housing for all nomads.|
Rural Clear-up Project
|We will facilitate treatment and utilization of organic wastes as well as collection and disposal of inorganic wastes in rural areas, and carry out supporting programs of land surface hardening and landscaping in villages.|